An overview of the historians of the 19th century and the mid victorian boom
Its overall impact, however, should not be underestimated. The Victorian town symbolised Britain's progress and world pre-eminence, but it also witnessed some of the most deprived people, and depraved habits, in the civilised world. Hundreds of gasworks were constructed in cities and towns across the country.
The victorian age is characterized by
In foreign policy Palmerstonian 'sleight of hand' p. His account of midth-century Manchester was uncompromising: a place of dirt, squalid over-crowding, and exploitation. Life expectancy at birth - in the high 30s in - had crept up to 48 by Large numbers travelling to quiet fishing villages such as Worthing , Morecambe and Scarborough began turning them into major tourist centres, and people like Thomas Cook saw tourism and even overseas travel as viable businesses. The number of children shrank, allowing much more attention to be paid to each child. Only time will tell whe ther or not the next generation wishes to leave the mid-Victorians in the same state. In which case there might have been an argument when the new serie s was conceived several years ago for selecting an alternative time period in which there were less contradictions. Although initially developed in the early years of the 19th century, gas lighting became widespread during the Victorian era in industry, homes, public buildings and the streets. These national organisations were multiplied several-fold by local charities. Ten years later, the British co-operative movement had grown to nearly 1, co-operatives. Liberal Unionism comes over as a damp sq uib p. The university, nevertheless, was established in , and by the s Oxford dropped its restrictions. Dissenters demanded the removal of political and civil disabilities that applied to them especially those in the Test and Corporation Acts. Extraordinarily for a history book there are no footnotes.
In addition to the increasing professionalism of university science, many Victorian gentlemen devoted their time to the study of natural history. The home became a refuge from the harsh world; middle-class wives sheltered their husbands from the tedium of domestic affairs.
Society and culture Evangelicals, utilitarians, and reform The central feature of Victorian era politics is the search for reform and improvement, including both the individual personality and the society.
The victorian era background notes
The Scottish complaint of a dispossessed Highland identity masked what was in fact an integrative and modernising economy north of the border p. The result was a merging of the two groups, strengthening their great weight as a political pressure group. Other themes are notable by their absence from Professor Hoppen's book, and consideration of some of them might have made for a more interpretative account. In , the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation, disease and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration;  To allow more cheap food into Ireland, the Peel government repealed the Corn Laws. On the home front, the nation was only beginning to get to grips with widespread poverty while considerably more than half the adult population remained without a vote. This is not to say that the book is not revisionist. With the arrival of the railway network, seaside towns became popular destinations for Victorian holiday makers Popular forms of entertainment varied by social class. One of the great scourges of the age - tuberculosis - remained unconquered, claiming between 60, and 70, lives in each decade of Victoria's reign. Penalties on Roman Catholics were mostly removed. The Peelites were 'highly strung athletes too nervous to respond to the starting pistol' p. Localism undoubtedly stymied many public health initiatives at least until the last two decades of the reign. During the Victorian era, the United Kingdom could plausibly be considered the world's superpower.
In the s and s Gladstone - 'energetic surface disturbance and submarine stability' p. At home, governments came under constant pressure to reduce defence spending, and the British army was by far the smallest of all the European great powers.
The quality of political debate in Victorian Britain, in newspapers and in both houses of parliament, was also very high. They instead concentrated on the argument that it was not necessary to believe in God in order to behave in moral fashion.
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